Rivoli's Hummingbird feeding
Hummingbirds comprise the family Trochilidae, among the smallest of birds, with most species measuring in the 3"-5" range.
They feature long slender needlelike bills adapted for reaching deep into tubular flowers.
Hummingbirds, like other birds and other animals, need food, water, and shelter, the basic necessities of life.
Their diet consists of nectar from flowers (red is the favorite color), and small insects such as aphids and spiders.
Hummingbirds feed in many small meals, consuming small invertebrates and up to twelve times their own body weight in nectar each day.
Many plant species rely on hummingbirds for pollination and provide nectar and tiny insects in exchange. Hummingbirds staunchly and aggressively defend a feeding area, or feeder, even when not feeding.
The beat of their wings is so rapid, up to 55 times a second, that a "humming" sound is produced, and the wings appear blurred. They are the only bird species that can fly backwards, or even upside down.
Hummingbirds can't walk or hop, but they can shuffle around a feeder with its extremely short legs, which are not very strong.
Research indicates a hummingbird can travel as much as 23 miles in one day. However, during migration as they cross the Gulf of Mexico they may cover up to 500 miles at a time. Their average speed in direct flight is in the range of 20-30mph, and up to three times that fast during courtship dives.
A hummingbird's nest is very small, usually about 1.5" in diameter. Eggs are likewise small, less than 1" long, about the size of a jelly bean.
The female lays her eggs on different days. The Ruby-Throated Hummingbird lays 2 eggs.
Hummingbird on nest (Photo courtesy of the author)
Black-chinned Hummingbird, Anna's Hummingbird, Costa's Hummingbird, Calliope Hummingbird, Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Rufous Hummingbird and Allen's Hummingbird all lay 1-3 eggs.
Gestation period is about 16-18 days.
The hummingbird family is very large, with over 330 species and 115 genera, mostly south of the U.S. Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, with almost half the species living in the "equatorial belt" between 10 degrees north and south of the equator.
Fewer than two dozen species venture into the U.S. and Canada, and only a few species remain year-round. On this website we feature the 18 most common hummingbird species found in North America.
In the Eastern and Central United States and Canada, the most common species is the Ruby-throated hummingbird. Several species are in the Gulf region.
In the Western United States, one will often find Anna’s, Black-chinned, Calliope, Broad-tailed, Allen’s, White-eared, and Rufous hummingbirds. In Texas and the Southwestern United States, all species will be found from time to time.
The Ruby-throated Hummingbird is the most common, and the only species regularly seen over most the eastern United States and Canada. Ruby-throats are the only hummingbird found east of the Great Plains, except for the Rufous.
It is about 3 3/4" in length, and metallic green above. Its notes are a rapid, high-pitched squeaky, chipping sound.
The adult male has a brilliant ruby red throat (gorget), black chin, and deeply notched, forked tail.
The female's throat is white, and immatures are similar in color to the female. The female body is slender, with a blunt, rounded tail with white corners.
The female Ruby-throated and Black-chinned are very similar, but have separate ranges. Males use a repeating "pendulum" arch of flight to attract females.
They are about 3 3/4" in length. Their weight can range from 2 to 6 g (0.071 to 0.21 oz), with males averaging 3.4 g (0.12 oz) and the slightly larger female averaging 3.8 g (0.13 oz).
The average life span is estimated by experts to be 3 - 5 years.
Most deaths occur in the first year of life. The record age of a banded Ruby-Throated hummingbird is 6 years, 11 months.
When formulating your hummingbird mixture recipe, remember that nectar found in nature is typically in the range of 12%-35% sugar (sucrose). The solution you prepare should be similar to that found in nature.
A classic 16-oz First Nature 3051 feeder hung at eave-level ... always a favorite of the hummingbirds!
We make our own solution, using the recommended mix of four parts water to one part sugar, i.e., 20% sugar. We do not boil the water, but we find that using warmer water helps dissolve the sugar quicker. Note that our water is pure; for those whose water supplies are suspect, boiling water is an option to remove impurities.
We never use red-dye or pre-mixed commercial nectar ... it is just not needed, and it can be harmful to hummingbirds. Just make your own ... it is easy to do!!
Many people refer to the first hummingbird sighting of the year or early arrival as being "a scout". Some species of birds, such as Purple Martins, do send a bird in advance of the migrating flock to scout out potential nesting and breeding areas.
However, hummingbirds are loners, and migrate alone. They do not scout out an area, and then return to notify others. So, despite popular theory, there is no such thing as a hummingbird scout.
The spring migration of the Rufous hummingbird north from Mexico in the spring is through the Pacific states, and the fall migration south is through the Rocky Mountains.
During migration, they can be found in mountain meadows as high as 12,000 feet. Migration paths of the Rufous can span over 3,000 miles.
Anna's Hummingbirds have the northernmost year-round range of any hummingbird. These hummingbirds are a common resident of the northern Pacific coast, west of the Sierra Mountains, frequently in coastal lowlands. The species breeds from Vancouver, Canada south to northern Baja California and east through southern Arizona.
This hardy bird can be a permanent resident along the Pacific Coast, staying through the winter in many areas where no other hummingbirds are present.
During the fall migration, it is recommended that hummingbird lovers leave up their feeders for about two weeks after they sight what they think is their final bird. Just to feed those late-migrating hummers!
Hummingbirds have an innate ability to remember their favorite feeding locales. Banding experts have shown time and time again that individual hummingbirds return to the same spot year after year.
So enjoy your hummers today ... and hopefully you will see them again next year!
Yes, hummingbirds molt, losing old feathers and replacing them with new ones, much like other species of birds. Molting often happens in the mid-summer, prior to the southbound, fall migration, and after breeding season (when male hummingbirds have near-perfect feathers). But some may start migration before molting begins.
Molting commonly occurs on the body, and not so much on wing or tail feathers.
The annual molt which begins during fall migration is completed during the winter. With their first molt, juvenile males develop their red/purple/pink throats.
The answer is "Yes". We have seen it happen on a feeder, and it isn't a pretty sight. As difficult as it might be to imagine, "Mantids" can sometimes capture, kill, and eat a hummingbird. The quick strike of the mantid, on a plant or feeder, can immobilize a hummingbird.
If you are subject to ants, you might want to attach ant-guards, or moats, above your feeders.
Some feeders, like the Aspects models, have a small, built-in moat on top that you fill with water.
Never use products such as oil or Vaseline on feeders, wires or shepherd hooks to deter ants ... these products are dangerous to hummingbirds.
Standalone ant-guards/moats hang above the feeder, like those shown below.
Make sure your feeders are not leaking. Sometimes moving a feeder, or taking it down for a day or so, may persuade bees to move on!
Bees need to drink water, but can't swim. Many hummingbird watchers create a "bee watering station" by filling a shallow container with small rocks, mixed gravel or sand and filling it with water; placed near feeders, bees will appreciate the feeding spot.
Hummingbirds are prolific defenders of the food source they have found, and claim it as theirs. Whether it is flowers, or a feeder, their protective demeanor is the same. So, how DO you stop the fighting? Basically, you can not, as it is built into their gene pool.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics, emotions, and behaviors to animals ... like calling hummingbirds "bullies".
There are no “hummingbird bullies” and humans should not try to manage them. That bird that we disparagingly refer to as a “bully” is doing precisely what it was created to do.
To minimize fighting. some nature lovers will spread their feeders further apart, while others position them closer together. See what works for you! But understand that this is the way hummingbirds operate, and it is their nature to be protective. So, just sit back, relax, and enjoy their antics!
Hummingbirds build their own nests from scratch and do not nest in cavities or man-made, conventional style birdhouses. The female usually builds her nests in trees or shrubs, between 10-50 feet above ground.
Also, they are capable of finding their own nesting materials, and humans do not need to provide "hummingbird supplies" such as thread, fiber or sticks. They build their own nests from feathers, twigs, plant fibers, bits of leaves, spider silk, moss, and lichen. The nests are cup-shaped, and very small.
This is a difficult, probably impossible, question to answer. We honestly don't know why there are fewer, or more, hummers at one particular location or backyard compared to previous years.
There are many factors influencing how many hummers are in one particular area. Temperature variations, storms, flowering levels, migration, etc. all impact populations. Also, they tend to disappear when mating and raising their young. Many nature enthusiasts might see many hummingbirds early in the spring, and then witness a decline in numbers as the birds migrate further north.
The Hummingbird Central website is not run by professional, trained ornithologists, and does not have the resources to conduct detailed, scientific studies about hummingbird population trends. We recommend that those interested in this subject refer to organizations such as Journey North, Cornell Lab of Ornithology and The Audubon Society for studies on hummingbirds and population projections.
Hummingbirds survived just fine without human intervention, as they had been doing for centuries!
The first commercially available, backyard hummingbird feeder, the glass "Webster Hanging Feeder", was launched in 1950 by the Audubon Novelty Company of Medina, NY. Prior to then, hummingbirds were on their own to find sources of nectar and small insects.
Many hummingbirds DO look alike, and sometimes juveniles and females are really difficult to differentiate. Shown below is a comparison of several species with similar markings and coloration.
While rare, there are indeed white-colored hummingbirds. Read about Albino and white Leucistic Hummingbirds.
Hummingbirds are beautiful, colorful creatures! But some are white, or whitish!
There are three types, a true Albino, and a Leucistic hummingbird ... and a mixture, known as Pied (or Piebald).
This short video highlights some of the albino, leucistic and pied hummingbird sightings which have been submitted by Hummingbird Central website viewers.
It runs only about 4 minutes ... turn up your volume, and enjoy some incredible views of white hummingbirds!
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